© 2017  Andriana Nassou


Single use cutlery produces a huge amount of waste as well as a heavy CO2 footprint as it is not recyclable and is used for less than 3’.


Could countries re-utilise their waste streams to produce single use cutlery that biodegrades? Prolonging the life of waste material for 3 more minutes can save the planet from 14 billion plastic cutlery.


ORANGE JUICE PRODUCTION:17.9 million tons/ year

ORANGE PEEL WASTE: 9 million tons of waste/ year


CITRUS is an exploration of the potential of orange peel as a new raw material source for the production of disposable cutlery. Disposable cutlery is an object that is used for less than 3’ and then it is thrown away. Million of disposable spoons are used every day and the majority of them is non recyclable or biodegradable. In short, all the disposable plastic spoons that have been used until today are still on this planet.


Orange peel is rich in pectin, a long polysaccharide that forms the fibres of the orange. Due to its synthesis is used in nature as a vegetable glue. The result of the combination of the peel powder with a custom made biodegradable natural resin, is a significantly strong and biodegradable material. The form of the CITRUS spoon is informed by the

strengths and weaknesses of the new material.